Kamis, 17 Maret 2011


Adverbial Clause (Using before, after, when and while)

Study the following examples.
 a.  When the baby was in his bed, the big snake approached him.
                (adverbial clause)                      (independent clause)

 b.  She locked the door to make the gold inside safe before the woman left the house.
                 (independent clause)                                               (adverbial clause)

Notes :
-   Adverbial clauses are dependent clauses which cannot stand alone. The big snake approached him is
    the independent (main) clause.
-   The time introducers of adverb clause can be put either as the first or second clause (see example a and  
-   The punctuation: if the adverb clause comes first, a comma is needed to separate clauses (see example 
    If the adverb clause comes the second, a comma is not necessary (see no. b).
-   Adverb clauses introduced by before, after, when, and while are adverb clause of time (meaning that 
    the clause explain the time of events).

Time Introducer After
ex: The dog was killed by the villagers after it wounded the baby.
mean: After means happening at that time subsequent to a certain time.

Time Introducer Before
ex: Before he died, he said some important words to his sons.
mean: Before means earlier in time or previously.

Time Introducer When
ex: When I was a child, I went to the jungle with my uncle.
mean: When means 'at that time'.

Time Introducer While
ex: While she was sitting at the porch of her house, a big frightening man came.
mean: While means 'during that time'.

Adverbial Clause to Show Cause-effect Relationships (Using because, since, as, for, and because of)

Adverbial clauses to show cause-effect relationship are usually necessary in the analytical and hortatory expositions. Therefore, it is very important to understand the use of conjunctions of cause-effect relationship.

A.  The uses of because, since, as, and as long as
      Study the following examples.
      a.  Flood happen regularly because the rivers cannot accommodate the great amount of
             (independent clause)   because +                        (adverbial clause) 
            Subject + Verb/to-be                                    Subject + Verb/to-be

      b.  Because the rivers cannot accommodate the great amount of water, floods happen
           Because +    (adverbial clause)                               (independent clause)
      c.  The prices of basic commodities rise as the fuel prices increase.
      d.  You should study more intensively since the exam will come soon. 
      e.  They won't go to school as long as they can't afford to pay school fee and the 
           expensive books.

1.  as and since mean the same: "because". As long as means "but only if".
2. The conjunctions (because, as, since, as long as) may come before or after the independent (main)
     clause. Compare examples a and b.
3. When the conjunctions come before the independent clause, a comma is needed.
4. Both independent clause and adverbial clause consist of a subject and predicate (verb/to-be).

B.  The use of "because of"
      Study the examples.
      a.  Because the quality is low, the product cannot be sold at a good price.
           Because + adverbial clause, Independent Clause

      b.  Because of the low quality, the product cannot be sold at a good price.
           Because of + Noun            , Independent Clause

Adverbial Clause of Time (Using by the time, until, once, as and as soon as)

To make texts, especially narratives become coherent, it is necessary to use adverbial clause of time. Some of the common words to introduce adverbial clause of time are: until, as, by the time, once and as soon as.
Study the following examples.
a.   I stayed in the house until the rain stopped.
b.   As the woman was waiting for her husband in front of the house, the child began crying.
c.   By the time the man arrived, the child had already slept.
d.   Once he got the chance, he hit the big man in the head.
e.   As soon as the rain started, he stopped his car.

Until or till means "to that timeand then no longer" (till is used usually in speaking).
As means "while", during that time.
By the time means "one event is completed before another event".
Once and as soon as means the same, "when one event happens, another event happens soon afterwards"

*  Adverb clauses are sub (dependent) clauses which are used before or after the
    independent (main clauses).
    E.g. Once he finished his food, he ran to the jungle to hunt wild animals.
                   Adverbial clause                                 Main clause

            He ran to the jungle to hunt wild animals as soon as he finished his food.
                   Main clause                                                Adverbial clause

Taken from:
Kistono, dkk. 2007. The Bridge English Competence. Jakarta: Penerbit Yudistira.

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